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Synthetic Fuels

 

Probstien, Ronald F.

Professor of Mechanical Engineering
Massachusetts Institute of Technology and
Water Purification Associates

Hicks, R. Edwin
Water Purification Assicates

McGraw-Hill Book Company

Copyright 1982

 Table of Contents

  Page
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
  1.1 Synthetic Fuels and Their Manufacture 1
  1.2 History 6
  1.3 Properties of Coal, Oil Shale, and Tar Sands 11
  1.4 Resources 21
    References 29
Chapter 2 Chemical and Physical Fundamentals 31
  2.1 Chemistry for Synthetic Fuels 31
  2.2 Thermodynamics for Synthetic Fuels 48
  2.3 Reaction Kinetics and Catalysis 72
  2.4 Reactor Considerations 83
    References 94
Chapter 3 Conversion Fundamentals 95
  3.1 Pyrolysis 95
  3.2 Gasification 111
  3.3 Gas Shift and Synthesis 123
  3.4 Direct Liquefaction 131
  3.5 Comparison of Synthetic Fuel Routes 138
    References 141
Chapter 4 Gas from Coal 144
  4.1 Gasification Technologies 144
  4.2 Steam/Oxygen and Steam/Air Gasification 156
  4.3 Indirectly Heated and Molten Media Gasification 182
  4.4 Hydrogasification and Catalytic Gasification 189
  4.5 Underground Gasification 202
    References 208
Chapter 5 Gas Upgrading 210
  5.1 Gas Cleaning and Purification 210
  5.2 Shift and Methanation 221
  5.3 Oxygen Production 226
  5.4 Hydrogen Production 233
  5.5 Integrated Plants 238
    References 255
Chapter 6 Liquids and Clean Solids from Coal 257
  6.1 Liquefaction and Coal Refining Technologies 257
  6.2 Indirect Liquefaction 264
  6.3 Pyrolysis 280
  6.4 Direct Liquefaction 291
  6.5 Upgrading Coal Liquids 309
    References 319
Chapter 7 Liquids from Oil Shale and Tar Sands 322
  7.1 Oil Shale Retorting 322
  7.2 Integrated Oil Shale Plants 346
  7.3 Tar Sands Recovery 359
  7.4 Integrated Tar Sands Plants 371
    References 379
Chapter 8 Biomass Conversion 381
  8.1 Resources 381
  8.2 Biochemical Conversion 390
  8.3 Thermal Conversion 401
    References 410
Chapter 9 Environmental Aspects 411
  9.1 Environmental Effects and Their Measure 411
  9.2 Air Pollution Control 420
  9.3 Water Management 430
  9.4 Solid Wastes Disposal 437
  References 441
Chapter 10 Economics and Perspective 442
  10.1 Economic Considerations 442
  10.2 Resource, Process, and Product Considerations 448
  References 455

Appendixes

 
  A

Constants and Conversion Factors

456
  B Symbols and Acronyms 458

Index

463

 

 

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